The Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) is charged with planning and carrying out programs and initiatives to improve the functioning and effectiveness of the criminal justice system as a whole (§9.1-102 of the Code of Virginia). The Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services: conducts research and evaluation on criminal justice issues; develops short and long-term criminal justice plans; distributes federal and state funding to localities, state agencies and nonprofit organizations in the areas of law enforcement, prosecution, crime and delinquency prevention, juvenile justice, victims services, corrections and information systems; provides training, technical assistance and program development services to all segments of the criminal justice system; establishes and enforces minimum training standards for law enforcement, criminal justice and private security personnel; and licenses and regulates the private security industry in Virginia. The agency’s primary constituents are local and state criminal justice agencies and practitioners, private agencies, private security practitioners and businesses, and the public-at-large. Other constituents include local governments and state agencies, the federal government and advocacy groups/associations. DCJS is unique in state government because of its system-wide perspective on criminal justice. While it directs programs and services to each component of the system, it has an overarching responsibility to view the system as a whole, to understand how changes in one part of criminal justice will affect other parts, and to work to assure that plans and programs are comprehensive. The Department of Criminal Justice Services is one of 11 agencies within the Secretariat of Public Safety and Homeland Security. The Criminal Justice Services Board is the Department’s policy board. It is comprised of representatives from all aspects of the criminal justice system on both state and local levels of government, and most of its members are appointed by the Governor.